It's important that you supply artwork and masters correctly so we can get your Vinyl, CD, Cassette, DVD or Blu-ray manufactured as quickly and smoothly as possible.
It is very important that you supply your artwork exactly as specified. Our prices do not cover extra work ammending the files you supply in order to bring them up to spec and any such work will result in extra charges.
To AVOID EXTRA CHARGES you must
Please also supply native (original) file formats (using InDesign where possible) along with fonts with your final print-ready PDFs. We provide templates in Adobe InDesign and as Acrobat PDFs.
You can upload your artwork with our FTP upload site, via email, Dropbox or an online file delivery service such as WeTransfer. More detail is available in our Artwork Guide.
Before your artwork is printed we will send you PDF proofs of your designs for final approval. In order to proceed with the order, you must reply by email to approve the PDFs. This PDF is NOT to be used for colour approval due to variances in screen settings and resolution. Please check all other aspects including, but not limited to: position, spelling, fonts, bleed, barcode, vinyl a/b sides, overprint and knockout.
Digital printed proofs are available at cost, on request but are not available for reverse board printing. Wet proofs are also available at cost on request. Press passes can be arranged at cost for packaging manufactured in the UK however UK manufacture is not necessarilly included in the prices quoted on the website. Please be advised that any additional proofing will increase production turnaround times.
More information on exactly how to put together you artwork can be found in our Artwork Guide
A PDF proof approval service is included in our package prices and our standard price list. We make sure your final print-ready PDFs are prepared correctly. If we detect a problem that we are unable to correct, we will ask you to re-supply your artwork. We will do this once within the original quoted price, but if artwork is re-supplied incorrectly, we will charge £30.00 + VAT to cover the extra time taken to analyse the PDF. Each further re-supply charge is £30.00 + VAT.
What WILL be checked?
What WON'T be checked?
The reason we won’t check these is that these aspects of your artwork are subjective and we have to assume that you, or your designer, has made a conscious decision to design them in the way they are supplied.
In this instance PDFs are sent directly to the printers. Usually this is a time-driven decision, however, if the files you supply are incorrect and are caught prior to printing you will be asked to re-supply and will be charged the £30.00 + VAT resupply charge.
We have supplier specific templates to cover all of the formats that Key Production manufacture. Please contact your account manager to obtain the correct template for your order.
We provide templates in Adobe InDesign that are specifically set up to fit into our printers’ workflow. If you are designing your artwork in another program, such as Photoshop or Illustrator, then we can provide PDFs that clearly show the required specifications.
As there is a wide array of different print formats available it is important that you use the specific templates we send you for the job that you are ordering.
Your audio masters for vinyl pressing can be supplied as zipped WAV files to our ftp upload site (contact us for details), by WeTransfer, Dropbox or on a CD-R or retail-ready CD. However you supply your audio you MUST always provide a full tracklist with timings and side splits.
The standard bit rate to press vinyl is 24 bit/44.1KHz. The master should be fully edited and as you want it to sound, with tracks in the correct order and with your desired gaps between each track.
It is important to allocate your vinyl pressing master a catalogue number (you create this). This number should be unique and will be applied to your label and sleeve artwork so that each part is correctly married-up to ensure your final product is correct. If supplying your master as WAV files, place the track information text file and audio files within a single zipped folder before uploading.
We need a complete tracklist supplied with every record pressing master. The list should contain the names of all the tracks, each track’s duration and the side splits for correct separation into side A and side B. These are mandatory requirements.
When pressing vinyl with hidden tracks or any unusual features this should be clearly communicated to us at the ordering stage. Provide the track number, name and time and details of your special requirements. Examples include long gaps between tracks, very quiet passages or deliberate use of electronic buzz, distortion etc.
The quality of vinyl audio is directly affected by the distance between the record grooves and therefore the playing time of the record. Exceeding the maximum recommended playing lengths below can compromise the audio quality of the record, with bass heavy recordings particularly problematic:
At 33⅓ rpm:
At 45 rpm:
Once your vinyl record masters and order are received, we cut the audio to either lacquer or direct to copper plates (DMM) depending on various factors. Both lacquers and DMMsare created on a special lathe which looks like a large record player and works rather like a record player's phonograph pick-up in reverse, where the audio is converted to mechanical motion. The cutting stylus, mounted in the head, cuts a precise spiral groove across the plate spinning at an exact speed of 33⅓ or 45rpm, and vibrates to transfer the recording.
Once the cut has taken place, lacquers are processed, firstly to a negative using nickel and an electroplating process, then again to create a positive. These are then plated once more to form the stampers (negatives again), which are then used to press the final records. Coppers are processed directly to stampers.
Vinyl is pressed by placing a puck of vinyl, sized roughly quarter of the area and three times the thickness of the final record, between the A & B side stampers and sandwiched by printed labels. Using steam at approximately 300ºC, the vinyl is heated and forced under pressure into every groove of the stampers. At a predetermined moment the steam is replaced by cold water and the record is instantly hardened. After coming out of the hot vinyl press the newly made record has its ragged edge neatly trimmed by a circular cutting device.
Before ordering a final run of vinyl we recommend getting a set of test pressings (TPs) to check for the following -
NOTE: We will automatically assume that TPs are required unless you tell us to bypass this stage. Key Production is unable to further your order until you have approved your test pressings.
The reason for this is that mastering is, more often than not, done from digital files and digital files show a wider range of frequencies, such as higher dynamics and higher stereo width, than a vinyl record can reproduce. Therefore, cutting a lacquer or DMM can require minor adjustments by using tools such as de-essers and low cuts to make the sound fit for a vinyl pressing. But even if you supply a ready-for-vinyl master, the final sound of the record, when played, might differ from the original (digital master), even in a studio setup.
Although there is a slight difference between the setup of TPs and the main run, for instance it’s unlikely that both runs to be pressed on the same machine, TPs provide an accurate representation of how the final record sounds and are considered identical copies of the mother stampers.
Unlike main pressing runs, TPs are not subject to the same level of quality control. As a result, pressing defects such as non-fill, stitching, groove bottom defects, and imperfect edge cuts may occur but will not interfere with the purpose of the test pressings, which is checking their sound. In other words, minor imperfections and individual flaws affecting only one or a few of the entire TP run will not prevent them from being used for checking how it sounds. However, if particular flaws, such as crackling, hissing, or clicks, are identical in intensity and location across the entire run of test pressings, a stamper fault may be the cause, and the Key Production must be notified before approval.
Detected stamper faults will be examined and cleaned for the final run. If cleaning the pressing or mother stampers resolves the issue there is no need for a new set of TPs be made. If you are dissatisfied with the sound quality, such as distortion or sibilance; remastering or a new cut should be considered. Depending on whether it was a supplied cut or if Key Production provided the cut, additional costs may arise. Any sound quality issues resulting from the master/cut and appearing on a TP will always be identically imperfect on all copies.
A little known fact is TPs themselves are not considered a manufactured product but rather a sample for audio checks and, legally, the TP remains the property of the plant and could be reclaimed at any time, though in 33 years, we’ve never seen this happen!
Your records are usually hand-packed, though at some vinyl pressing plants they pack directly into a ‘bag' (a sleeve without a spine). Therefore, most record manufacturing runs will include a hand-packing charge. Stickers and inserts are normally hand-packed too. We require an accurate description of the required sticker position. You should always consider where any shop placed pricing stickers may appear (usually top right). Hand-packing is charged per movement.
Vinyl orders of 500 or more are subject to a 10% variance from the chosen quantity. This means that the quantity you actually receive may be as much as 10% OVER or 10% UNDER your order quantity. This is standard across the industry and the final price you pay will be adjusted to reflect this.
Coloured vinyl record pressing is undertaken using different source material to solid black vinyl and the quality of sound may vary slightly because of this. In particular, higher noise levels and isolated static sounds (clicks) may appear in the lead-in and lead-out grooves, in the track crossovers and at any quiet points of the recording.
In general, the more transparent the colour, the better the sound quality, with opaque colours tending to display a higher noise level. Vinyl colours may appear to vary depending on light, background and opacity. As coloured vinyl is produced from several batches of source material, small variations in colour may appear throughout a run. Coloured vinyl records may also show run-marks, spots or slight traces of other colours as machines cannot run 100% clean. We're not able to match vinyl colour to Pantone colours. It should also be noted that colours seen on websites and print-outs are for guide purposes only and may not closely resemble the colour of the pressed records. There is more information and examples of colour vinyl on our Vinyl Services page.
We ask that you supply a DDP file that contains an MD5 checksum. Alternatively a Red Book CD-R along with a tracklisting. Remember the final CD you receive will be an exact replica of the one you supplied. Please keep a back-up copy of your CD master and your artwork.
It is important to allocate your master a catalogue number (you create this). This number should be unique and will be applied to your CD label and artwork so that each part is correctly married up to ensure the final product is correct.
CD text is something that can be written in to your DDP or CD-R master and can be viewed on players that display CD Text eg CD & Car CD players. CD text does not affect iTunes or Windows Media etc.. To populate listings on iTunes and Windows Media you need to contact Gracenote.
The International Standard Recording Code (ISRC) system is the international system for the identification of recorded music and music videos. Each ISRC is a unique identifier that can be permanently encoded into a recording or music video. Encoded ISRCs automatically identify recordings for PPL payments for radio plays.
PPL is the appointed sole agency for ISRCs in the UK. You should request an ISRC 'stem' (or first registrant code) when you become a PPL recording rightholder member. This stem is three letters allocated in sequence from PPL's database that are specific to each recording rightholder member.
Key Production is unable to generate ISRCs, but can add the codes you obtain from the PPL on to your CD master for a small fee.
A glass master, used for CD replication, consists of glass, optically ground and polished, then coated with photoresist. A laser exposes a pattern of pits – the digitised sound information – into the photoresist coating. Exposed pits are etched away (developed) to generate the final pit structure. This is then coated in silver to form the master. Electroforming replicates the master layer in a nickel-plating bath, forming a negative (father). Multiple positives (mothers) are made in order to produce negatives (sons/daughters) which are used as stampers in the moulding process.
Please note that within the prices quoted and charged, we are offering the service of providing a glass master as a means to press CDs or DVDs. The Glass Master remains the property of the pressing plant and cannot be released to you to store or press elsewhere.
The stampers are then used to replicate CDs in an injection moulding process. Hot polycarbonate is forced under high pressure into a circular mould containing the stamper and then cooled so the polycarbonate takes on the mirror image of the mould. A thin metal “reflective layer” is added to one side of the disc. This reflective layer allows the laser to read the digital data that is created by the pits. Finally, a lacquer coating is added to protect the replicated CDs. This process makes about 100 CDs per hour.
All CD orders are subject to a 5% variance from the chosen quantity. This means that quantity you actually receive may be as much as 5% OVER or 5% UNDER your order quantity. This is standard across the industry and the final price you pay will be adjusted to reflect this.
The pressed CDs are then moved to a printing machine where, using the label artwork with your catalogue number, silk screen or litho onbody printing is applied. From there the discs are moved to the packing area and depending on the packaging are either machine or hand packed. Booklets, inlays and wallets are usually all machine packable, but items such as digipaks and stickering are hand packed and a charge is made per hand pack movement.
CD duplication is the process whereby blank discs are copied for low quantity manufacture. For quantities smaller than 500 (the minimum for CD replication), Key Production offers a CD duplication service. This service provides a cost effective, yet high quality alternative for small runs and fast turnaround.
Supply a DDP or a DVD-R for DVD replication. If you require CSS encryption please ensure we are aware before you master as we can advise how it is applied. Please keep a back-up copy of your DVD master and your artwork.
The standard DVD has a capacity of 4.7GB in a single layer, single-sided form known as DVD-5. This is over seven times the capacity of a CD and allows full color printing on one side of the disc. Greater capacity can be achieved using DVD-9 (8.5GB) and DVD-10 (9.4GB) formats.
A glass master consists of glass, optically ground and polished, then coated with photoresist. A laser exposes a pattern of pits - the digitised sound information - into the photoresist coating. Exposed pits are etched away (developed) to generate the final pit structure. This is then coated in silver to form the master. Electroforming replicates the master layer in a nickel-plating bath, forming a negative (father). Multiple positives (mothers) are made in order to produce negatives (sons) which are used as stampers in the DVD replication moulding process.
Please note that within the prices quoted and charged, we are offering the service of providing a glass master as a means to press CDs or DVDs. The glass master remains the property of the pressing plant and cannot be released to you to store or press elsewhere.
The stampers are then used to replicate DVDs in an injection moulding process. Hot polycarbonate is forced under high pressure into a circular mould containing the stamper and then cooled so the polycarbonate takes on the mirror image of the mould. A thin metal reflective layer is added to one side of the disc. This reflective layer allows the laser to read the digital data that is created by the pits. Finally a lacquer coating is added to protect the disc. This process makes about 100 DVDs per hour.
The replicated DVDs are then moved to a printing machine where, using the label artwork with your catalogue number, silk screen or litho onbody printing is applied. From there the discs are moved to the packing area and depending on the packaging are either machine or hand packed. Booklets, inlays and wallets are usually all machine packable, but items such as digipaks and stickering are hand packed and a charge is made per hand pack movement.
DVD Duplication is the process whereby blank DVDs are copied for low quantity manufacture. For quantities smaller than 500, Key Production offers a DVD duplication service. This service provides a cost effective yet high quality alternative for small runs and fast turnaround.
Our standard delivery offering is within mainland UK, except to UK islands and the Highlands of Scotland, where costs are extra and deliveries may take longer.
We can of course deliver all over the world but EU deliveries in particular are more complex. In most instances we will have to pass on EU VAT charges unless you are a registered EU company, or are registered for VAT in the country to which we deliver. After Brexit, the UK is no longer in the EU VAT regime, so you will not be able to claim this VAT back in your normal VAT return.
Most of our product is pressed within the EU and will incur import charges to the UK. We are able to spread these costs over the many deliveries we receive so our charges are kept to the minimum - CD @ £20.00 and Vinyl @ £30.00 per order.
Key Production fully supports the Anti-Piracy Compliance Program (APCP), which has been developed by the Content Delivery and Storage Association (CDSA). The program specifies the most important procedures for piracy screening.
In practice, this means that Key Production performs extra checks on copyright information on audio, data and artwork. We will require you to confirm that you own these copyrights and if not, it will require us to send label copy and licensing documentation together with your parts and/or data to the CD/DVD/Blu-Ray replication plant or vinyl pressing plant. Licensing documentation indicates that full rights are obtained for producing the specific audio and/or information data.
The program is designed to protect the rights of the owner of the sound recording and/or content and therefore differs from the Mechanical Copyright Protection Society (MCPS) who protect the rights of the writer and publisher. Therefore a valid MCPS license or indication of no claim from MCPS is required, but is not proof that you have the right to manufacture the sound recording or data.
Mechanical rights entitle you to earn money whenever a song or composition that you have written is reproduced. This includes when your works are recorded onto a physical product (such as a CD or audio-visual product), or listened to or downloaded off the internet.
Key Production are PRS for Music recognized manufacturers and will not proceed with manufacturing unless we are fully satisfied that you have obtained a license, or have at least contacted PRS for Music to acquire a license. We, along with all recognised manufacturers, send monthly reports to PRS for Music for all discs manufactured.